8.1 Introduction
8.2 Socio-Economy in the Data Dictionary
8.3 Demography
8.3.1 Description
8.3.2 Omissions
8.3.3 Data and Analysis
8.3.4 Using the Data
8.3.5 Implications
8.4 Labour Force and GDP
8.4.1 Description
8.4.2 Omissions
8.4.3 Data and Analysis
8.4.4 Using the Data
8.4.5 Implications
8.5 Physical Plans and Policies
8.5.1 Locations and Status
8.5.2 Implications

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SOCIO-ECONOMIC BACKGROUND

8.1  Introduction

An important part of the activities by Task Force 4 has been towards outlining a spatial ICZM Plan. This work has been carried out based upon traditional planning approaches using demographic pressure as a key element in developing management/planning strategies. Socio-economy will be covered and analysed to much greater detail in the draft ICZM spatial plan document77, which is considered the precursor for the ICZM Plan document. However, the information and discussion presented in the current section draw considerably on the spatial planning efforts.

8.3  Socio-Economy in the Data Dictionary

Figure 36: Socio-Economic Background in the Data Dictionary

The socio-economic background for ICZM has been grouped by administrative boundaries down to the sub-district level, by urban and rural population and by households, by sectoral contribution to GDP by labour force and by coverage of physical plans. At the ICZM level of the Project it was considered of little relevance to subdivide demographic parameters further, although such considerations should be given at more local level management, where ethnic groups, age structure,, etc. should be included. The GDP contributions likewise are only differentiated into the broad sector structure applied in the annual statistics.


8.3  Demography

8.3.1  Description

Data presented relates to Historical Population for the State collected as a whole during each Census since 1951 and Total Population for each District by year (1980 and 1991) and split according to whether it is classified as Urban or Rural by the Department of Statistics. Urban is defined as gazetted areas with their adjoining built-up areas having a combined population of 10,000 or more. Rural is the remainder of the population. Data is also provided for both Urban and Rural households in 1991 and as a Total for 1980. The concept of a household is based on arrangements for food and other essentials for living within the same living quarters.

8.3.2  Omissions

Data on gender, age-groups or ethnic classifications are not included. These details are considered unnecessary for a rapid assessment of the characteristics of the coastal zone and are unlikely to be of use for decision-making at the regional scale. A detailed analysis of District characteristics would require such data. At present the Department of Statistics does not have data on individual Enumeration Boundaries (EB) in digital format. It is only in sketch form and its prime use is by enumerators during each Census. We recommend that production of such a digital map should be a priority before the 2001 Census takes place. Much of the base data required for such maps is already stored at the Department of Lands & Survey and should be released without cost to the Department of Statistics. Data on the breakdown of household size by Urban and Rural is apparently not available for 1980. At a regional scale this is not crucial: it will be included as part of the next Census to enable a comparison with 1991.

Although more recent socio-economic projections are available from the Department of Statistics78, these have not been used as presented figures on population and employment may require rechecking. That Department is currently assessing this. For example, the projected working age (15-64) population in Table 3.4 (statistical yearbook) has risen 396,900 (1993-97) whereas the increase in employed persons in Table 9.1 (statistical yearbook) (1992-96) was some 523,500. Either the projections are not compatible or there is a very high amount of official double counting due to many workers being classified as having more than one job. The figures make meaningful analysis difficult, as an "employed person" must actually be a "job" in many cases. Assuming the 1991 labour force characteristics in Table 6.5 below for 1996 would give the actual number of employed at around 223,500 for 1996 compared to the Department of Statistics figure of 523,500. The difference is some 300,000 employed persons.

8.3.3  Data and Analysis

In Table 54, although natural rates of growth have tended to be higher than for Malaysia as a whole in the past, the most significant ingredient of the population increase has been migration. Given Sabah’s position, adjoining East Kalimantan and a long coastline in close proximity to Mindanao, it is not surprising that there is external population pressure seeking employment opportunities, especially along the east coast. Even during the 1960’s a detailed study79 concluded that migration contributed 0.85% of the 3.66% AAGR. In the 1980’s it is likely that international migration has contributed up to half of the overall 5.67% growth, given that there is also out-migration between Sabah and other Malaysian states. The 1991 Census reports that Sabah has the highest percentage of foreign born population (22.1) and also the highest percentage of population who migrated to Malaysia in the period 1986-91 (7.0).

Table 54: Historical Population Growth (000)

Sabah 1951 1960 1970 1980 1991
Population 334.1 454.4 653.6 929.3 1,734.7
Growth Rate (AAGR) 3.50% 3.66% 3.51% 5.67%

Source: 1970, 1980 and 1991 Census from Statistics Department, Sabah

In terms of total population in Table 55, the fastest growing Districts have been Lahad Datu, Kunak, Kinabatangan, Penampang and Pensiangan, with at least 7% AAGR. The growth in Penampang reflects the proximity of Kota Kinabalu while Pensiangan total numbers are insignificant on a state basis. Most of the high growth rates are occurring along the east coast with AAGR > 5% also being experienced in Tawau, Semporna, Sandakan and Labuk Sugut. Conversely, the lowest growing locations are in the extreme south-west (Kuala Penyu 1.16% and Beaufort 2.65%) and north (Kota Belud 2.25% and Tuaran 2.54%). In terms of total numbers, Tawau is the largest of the 3 main Districts, although the figures for Kota Kinabalu exclude Penampang.

Table 55: Total, Urban & Rural Population by District

Total population Urban population Rural population
District 1980 1991 1980 1991 1980 1991
Tawau 113,708 244,728 43,200 124,943 70,508 119,785
Lahad Datu 51,772 118,096 14,938 44,614 36,834 73,482
Semporna 52,215 91,828 0 28,246 52,215 63,582
Sandakan 113,496 222,817 70,420 156,675 43,076 66,142
Kinabatangan 25,434 59,072 0 0 25,434 59,072
Labuk Sugut 30,066 54,539 0 0 30,066 54,539
Kota Kinabalu 108,725 209,175 55,997 160,184 52,728 48,991
Ranau 28,047 49,358 0 12,791 28,047 36,567
Kota Belud 45,503 58,259 0 0 45,503 58,259
Tuaran 48,374 63,995 0 0 48,374 63,995
Penampang 37,998 86,941 0 0 37,998 86,941
Papar 40,722 59,473 0 0 40,722 59,473
Kudat 38,397 56,047 0 21,918 38,397 34,129
Kota Marudu 27,149 42,747 0 0 27,149 42,747
Pitas 16,520 24,240 0 0 16,520 24,240
Beaufort 36,403 48,742 0 0 36,403 48,742
Kuala Penyu 12,565 14,271 0 0 12,565 14,271
Sipitang 12,076 24,349 0 0 12,076 24,349
Tenom 26,353 37,954 0 0 26,353 37,954
Pensiangan2 8,368 19,999 0 0 8,368 19,999
Keningau 41,204 88,456 0 15,966 41,204 72,490
Tambunan 14,204 19,726 0 0 14,204 19,726
Kunak1 0 39,873 0 10,989 0 28,884
Total 929,299 1,734,685 184,555 576,326 744,744 1,158,359

Source: 1980 and 1991 Census from Statistics Department, Sabah
Notes: 1) Kunak was in Lahad Datu in 1980. 2) Pensiangan also known as Nabawan

Urban growth rates in excess of 9% AAGR have been experienced in Kota Kinabalu, Tawau and Lahad Datu/Kunak. Of the 9 Districts with urban population in 1991, analysis of rates for Semporna, Ranau, Kudat, Keningau and Kunak are not possible from the above statistics given that they had no classified urban areas in 1980. It is expected that several other Districts will have official urban populations by the time of the next Census. Except for Keningau, all urban population is located in the Coastal Zone.

Table 56: Total Households by District 1980 & 1991

District

Total Households

Urban

Rural

1980

1991

1991

1991

Tawau

21,835

48,439

23,237

25,202

Lahad Datu

9,309

23,748

7,661

16,087

Semporna

8,506

15,234

4,009

11,225

Sandakan

19,202

40,605

27,823

12,782

Kinabatangan

4,740

13,964

0

13,964

Labuk Sugut

6,439

11,713

0

11,713

K. Kinabalu

20,323

39,213

31,123

8,090

Ranau

5,085

9,189

2,422

6,767

Kota Belud

8,775

11,422

0

11,422

Tuaran

8,858

12,172

0

12,172

Penampang

6,865

17,127

0

17,127

Papar

7,494

11,620

0

11,620

Kudat

7,414

10,282

3,636

6,646

Kota Marudu

500

8,421

0

8,421

Pitas

4,855

0

4,855

Beaufort

6,711

9,133

0

9,133

Kuala Penyu

2,306

2,878

0

2,878

Sipitang

2,405

5,283

0

5,283

Tenom

4,717

7,311

0

7,311

Pensiangan

1,565

4,694

0

4,694

Keningau

7,606

17,952

2,986

14,966

Tambunan 2,592 3,755 0 3,755
Kunak* 7,992 1,653 6,339
Total 163,247 337,002 104,550 232,452

Source: Population Report for Local Authority Areas, Population and Housing Census of Malaysia 1980 (December 1986) and 1991 Census from Statistics Department, Sabah. An Urban/Rural split was not available in 1980. Note: Kunak was in Lahad Datu in 1980. Pensiangan also known as Nabawan. Pitas had 16,000 people but no official households in 1980.

Rural population rates have also been significant in some locations, but it is uncertain how much of this is really rural growth and how much is growth of centres which are yet to be classified as urban. It is certain that Kota Kinabalu is experiencing a decline in its rural population (-0.67% AAGR).

From the total figures for households in Table 56 it appears that household formation increased by 106.4% compared to a population growth of 86.7% over the 1980-91 period. So overall household sizes are getting smaller (from 5.7 to 5.1 between the two Census), which is a general trend as society as a whole becomes more wealthy.

8.3.4  Using the Data

With demographic data for only one year its uses are limited. Data can be compared between Districts and a range of simple population densities can be calculated. These have little value by themselves. Addition of data on smaller enumeration areas, land uses and land suitability can produce more meaningful density calculations. Demographic analysis can be more usefully undertaken when there are 2 or more years of data, preferably with several years interval. This establishes an Annual Average Growth Rate (AAGR) between data points in time. The AAGR is a percentage and is calculated as follows when ln = natural log, P1 = data from year 1 (e.g. 1980), P2 = data from year 2 ( e.g. 1991) and t = time between the 2 points (e.g. 11 years). In MS Excel the calculation would be:

=100*ln(P2/P1)/t

The established AAGR can be projected forwards as a trend to establish what the population would be at some point in the future. This can be a good indicator for planning purposes, e.g. with regard to services and the impact of people upon natural resources. Assuming exp = the exponential growth rate and r = the AAGR, the following equation can be used in MS Excel to calculate the Trend population in any future year:

=P1*exp(r/100*t)

8.3.5  Implications

An indication of what these demographic characteristics mean for the future can be gauged by making a projection. In the absence of any reliable official projections a "Trend" projection can be made. "Trend" involves calculating growth rates previously experienced between certain dates and projecting them forwards to some point in time. Trend projections are not predictions. They are used as an exercise to answer the question "What would be the impact of the continuation of such rates on natural resources and what infrastructure would be required to support such growth?" In the absence of any firm predictions then "Trend" is a good indicator of likely short-term change. Clearly, what happens in the past is likely to continue unless there is some reason for change. So urban growth, once started, is likely to continue in a similar location. Trend assumes "non-intervention" in trying to influence future development patterns.

Recent training to enable preparation of an ICZM Spatial Plan has used the year 2005 for projection purposes based upon results of the 1980 and 1991 Census. In extracting from that document the following Trend conclusions can be drawn:

8.4  Labour Force and GDP

8.4.1  Description

The data is presented for 1980, 1991 and 1996 according to the official economic sub-sectors which can themselves be agglomerated into the 3 main sectors, notably Primary, Secondary (or manufacturing) and Tertiary (or Services). Each of the individual sub-sector’s contribution to overall State (GDP) is also shown for 1996. Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is defined as the total value of goods and services produced within a given period after deducting the cost of goods and services used up in the process of production but before deducting allowances for the consumption on fixed capital. It is often referred to as "value added". The labour force includes all persons aged 15-64 (working age population) who are either employed or actively or inactivity unemployed. It excludes those not at work, without jobs and not wanting work. The labour force participation rate is the percentage of the working age population, which is in the labour force.

8.4.2  Omissions

The 1991 Census includes detailed breakdowns of economic data by industry classification and by profession. We have included a summary of working age population, labour force participation rates, labour force, employment rate and persons employed for the state as a whole in 1991. This is sufficient for a rapid assessment of the employment structure but would need to be supplemented with selected data for a more detailed examination for planning purposes. Although the amount of employment for 1996 is included in the following tables, no analysis has been attempted for employment growth after 1991 given the discrepancies in the Department of Statistics Yearbook for 1997 as stated in Section 6.2 above. Projected 1996 employment rates look even more suspicious when compared to GDP per sub-sector. So although GDP from Manufacturing grew by 62% (1992-96) its employment grew 253%. Even in the Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry grouping where GDP increased only 2.6% from 1992-96 (due to the decline in forestry), employment rose by 67%.

8.4.3  Data and Analysis

In term of total numbers shown in Table 57, the Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry sub-sector has generated the highest employment from 1980-91 (except for Community/social grouping) while at the same time contributing the highest share of GDP in 1996. However, the primary sector’s share of employment has declined from 57% to 43% over the same period. The Wholesale & Retail Trade grouping also grew significantly in terms of total numbers (43,000) or some 20% of total employment growth.

Table 57: Employment by Sub-Sector 1980-96 and GDP 1996

SectorEmployment GDP 1)
1980 1991 1996 M$ million
Primary Agriculture/Fisheries/Forestry 195,502 243,446 354,000 3,114.1
Primary Mining/Quarrying 1,134 2,970 7,200 803.9
Secondary Manufacturing 16,856 49,990 171,400 1,245.9
Tertiary Services/Utilities 477 3,671 6,100 110.2
Tertiary 2) Construction 11,073 34,473 76,600 332.2
Tertiary Wholesale/retail/trade 27,182 70,349 154,300 1,117.7
Tertiary Transport/communications 9,753 23,417 42,400 593.7
Tertiary Finance 3,265 12,325 25,700 573.1
Tertiary Community/social 65,740 113,943 192,200 70.9
Tertiary Inadequate/unknown 11,898 10,180
Total 3) 342,880 564,764 1,029,900 8,309.4

Source: 1980 and 1991 Census and Yearbook of Statistics 1997, Statistics Department, Sabah.
Notes: 1) At 1978 prices. 2) Construction sometimes included in the secondary sector. 3) GDP also includes other inputs so the total does not add.

Overall, employment in the Primary sectors grew by some 25% in 1980-91 whereas the Secondary sector (manufacturing) grew by 197% and the Tertiary sectors by 120%.

The GDP contribution from the Manufacturing sub-sector has been the most dynamic in the recent past (1992-96), growing from 769 to 1,246 M$ million (at 1978 prices). In total numbers this growth has been supported by Wholesale/Retail/Trade which has been growing more slowly and also by Mining/Quarrying which is in decline. The rapid growth sub-sectors have been Hotels and Restaurants (part of Wholesale/Retail/Trade) and Finance. The Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry grouping has had a mixed recent past, with a decline in GDP from forestry, consistent growth in fishing and small annual increases in agriculture.

Table 58: Labour Force Characteristics

Row Item Unit 1991 Calculation
1 Total Population 000 1,735 1991 Census
2 Working Age Pop. 000 1,004 Population aged 15-64
3 Labour Force Participation Rate % 61.76 Excludes % not working
4 Labour Force 000 619 Row 2 x Row 3
5 Employment Rate % 91.21 (Row 6 Row 4) * 100
6 Employed Labour Force 000 565 1991 Census

Source: 1991 Census, Statistics Department, Sabah.

In the absence of detailed figures on some aspects of Labour force characteristics it should be noted that the number of employed as a percentage of the population declined from 37% in 1980 to nearly to 32.5% in 1991. So employment growth at 4.5% is slightly less than population at 5.7% per annum.

8.4.4  Using the Data

In addition to using the AAGR for employment projections there are several variables for inclusion in an analysis of labour forces and GDP. The calculations shown in Table 58 show the progression from total population to the employed labour force. In between these two figures analysis is possible on:

working age population (aged 15-64) and how this compares as a percentage of the whole, both now and in future. This is especially relevant when migration is an issue. Prediction of numbers of persons in each age group is relatively easy using cohort survival in a closed system but the introduction of various categories of migrants (young singles of both sexes, some families and possibly joining grandparents) makes prediction of future age group composition difficult;

labour force participation rate and the reasons why a certain number do not enter the labour force, e.g. students and families with only one wage earner;

employment rate which reflects jobs opportunities and indicates the "tightness" of the labour market. This in turn may feed back into in-migration pressures (if there seems to be good possibilities of obtaining work) and out-migration to other States or other countries (if job prospects are poor in certain sectors).

8.4.5  Implications

As stated above, employment data has been compared for the last 2 Census years rather than as contained in the latest statistical publication. Figures for GDP are taken from that publication for years 1992 and 1996 in the absence of any other data. The following implications become apparent:

there is a continuing shift away from Primary sector activities towards Secondary and Service sub-sectors in terms of employment but the Primary groupings are still the largest, employing some 43% of total employment in 1991. But the GDP of Manufacturing grew by 62% (1992-96) compared to less than 3% in the same period for Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry. Priority might usefully be given to labour-intensive manufacturing preferably using primary products from the State to support both sectors and employ as many of the rapidly growing population as possible;

policy decisions relating to the Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry grouping are crucial with population pressure giving the continuing need to boost GDP from limited lowland areas where there is competition from a variety of food and cash crops;

with Fisheries being the main Primary growth area in recent years there is a danger of overusing marine resources in an attempt to further boost production for export and home consumers;

the economic turndown may limit the continued growth of both employment and GDP in the manufacturing and services sectors. This is likely to force many to seek a living within the Primary sectors and may put more pressure on marginal land and coastal resources;

in the 1980-91 period, population grew marginally faster than employment. Continued in-migration means that major job creation is essential to limit unemployment and associated social pressures.

8.5  Physical Plans and Policies

8.5.1  Locations and Status

A list of current Physical Plans together with their latest status are contained in Table 59 . The locations of Schemes and Comprehensive Development Plans have been displayed in Figure 37 . The locations of Local Plans have been displayed in Figure 38 . The locations of Town Plans have been displayed in Figure 39.

8.5.2  Implications

There are a large number of schemes and town plans, which have been prepared by the Town and Regional Planning Department. There are a variety of levels of process regarding status ranging from adoption by the relevant local authority to approval by the cabinet. It can be a lengthy process from plan preparation to final adoption. A number of comments can be made regarding the physical planning system in Sabah:

  • there is no overall State spatial plan or planning policy to complement and physically implement the economic strategy propounded in the Outline Perspective Plan for Sabah (OPPS) covering 1995-2010;
  • this means that physical plans for Districts or towns are produced in isolation and can therefore only really accommodate growth rather than considering wider issues and being proactive in nature;
  • the lengthy approval time may mean that many plans are outdated upon final approval. This is perhaps not a problem if such plans can be used informally but this casts doubt on the validity of any decisions during the informal stage. In any case, rigid zoning plans are often not flexible enough to cater for unexpected events or changes of government policy;
  • the current range of physical plans basically cover land use allocations in urban areas. The planning of rural areas where proposals for forestry, plantation and other agricultural uses may clash and where there may be a need for integrated infrastructure provision has not been addressed.
  • rapid population pressures of recent years means that many of the older plans required monitoring and evaluation to assess whether the original assumptions and projections were correct.
  • Table 59: Physical Plans in Sabah and their Status, 1998

    Type District Name of Plan Status of Plan
    Schemes Kota Kinabalu Greater Kota Kinabalu Scheme To be superseded by KKCDP and the Local Plans
    Kota Kinabalu Kota Kinabalu Municipal Council Scheme I To be superseded by KKCDP and the Local Plans
    Kota Kinabalu Kota Kinabalu Municipal Council Scheme II To be superseded by KKCDP and the Local Plans
    Kota Kinabalu Telipok Scheme To be superseded by KKCDP and the Local Plans
    Penampang Penampang Scheme I To be superseded by KKCDP and the Local Plans
    Penampang Penampang Scheme II To be superseded by KKCDP and the Local Plans
    Tuaran Tuaran Scheme I Approved (Adopted by Cabinet)
    Tuaran Tuaran Scheme II (Berungis) Approved (Adopted by Cabinet)
    Tuaran Tuaran Scheme III (Tamparuli) Approved (Adopted by Cabinet)
    Tuaran Tuaran Scheme IV (Kiulu) Approved (Adopted by Cabinet)
    Tuaran Tuaran Scheme V Adopted by CTCPB
    Tuaran Tuaran Scheme I Ext.I Draft
    Tuaran Tuaran VI (Tambalang) Draft
    Papar Kimanis Draft
    Papar Bongawan Adopted by Local Authority
    Kota Belud Kota Belud Approved (Adopted by Cabinet)
    Kota Belud Kelawat  
    Tuaran Tenghilan Draft
    Ranau Ranau Scheme I Approved (Adopted by Cabinet)
    Ranau Ranau Scheme II (Kundasang) Draft
    Tuaran Tamparuli Extension Approved
    Papar Papar Scheme I Adopted by Local Authority
    Papar Kinarut To be superseded by KKCDP and the Local Plans
    Sandakan Sandakan Town and Environment Scheme Approved (Adopted by Cabinet)
    Kinabatangan Kota Kinabatangan Approved (Adopted by Cabinet)
    Kinabatangan Tambisan Draft
    Keningau Keningau Adopted by Local Authority
    Tambunan Tambunan Adopted by Local Authority
    Tenom Tenom Draft
    Tenom Kemabong Draft
    Beaufort Beaufort Draft
    Beaufort Weston Draft
    Beaufort Membakut Draft
    Kuala Penyu Kuala Penyu Draft
    Kuala Penyu Menumbok Draft
    Sipitang Sipitang Draft
    Sipitang Mesapol  
    Sipitang Sindumin Draft
    Keningau Nabawan Draft
    Tawau Tawau Adopted by CTCPB
    Lahad Datu Lahad Datu Approved (Adopted by Cabinet)
    Lahad Datu Tungku Draft
    Lahad Datu Kunak Adopted by Local Authority
    Semporna Semporna Approved (Adopted by Cabinet)
    Kudat Kudat Scheme I Adopted by CTCPB
    Kudat Kudat Extension  
    Kota Marudu Kota Marudu Scheme I Draft
    Kudat Limau-Limauan Draft
    Kudat Sikuati Draft
    Pitas Pitas Draft
    Kota Marudu Kota Marudu Scheme II  
    Local Plans Kota Kinabalu Kuala Menggatal Adopted by Local Authority
    Kota Kinabalu Menggatal Adopted to Local Authority
    Kota Kinabalu Nountun Adopted by Local Authority
    Kota Kinabalu Telipok Adopted by Local Authority
    Kota Kinabalu Kota Kinabalu Adopted by Local Authority
    Kota Kinabalu Tanjung Aru-Kepayan Draft plan
    Kota Kinabalu Kuala Inanam Adopted by Local Authority
    Papar Kinarut Draft plan
    Papar Papar Draft plan
    Papar Kimanis Draft plan
    Papar Kinarut South Adopted by Local Authority
    Papar Extension of Kinarut South Draft plan
    Penampang Putatan Adopted by Local Authority
    Penampang Extension of Putatan Draft plan
    Kota Kinabalu Inanam  
    Penampang Penampang Adopted by Local Authority
    Kota Kinabalu Menggatal North  
    Kudat Kudat Draft plan
    Kota Marudu Kota Marudu Adopted by Local Authority
    Tuaran Tuaran Draft plan
    Ranau Ranau Draft plan
    Ranau Kundasang Draft plan
    Sandakan Sandakan 1990 Draft plan
    Labuk Sugut Beluran 2000 Draft plan
    Labuk Sugut Telupid 2010 Draft plan
    Tawau Tawau 1990  
    Town Plans Kota Kinabalu Inanam Re-Development Draft Plan
    Kota Kinabalu Inanam Town Extension Draft plan
    Kota Kinabalu Menggatal Town Extension Adopted by Local Authority.
    Penampang Putatan Town Plan Draft plan
    Penampang Penampang New Town Draft plan
    Penampang Penampang New Town Extension Adopted by Local Authority
    Papar Bongawan New Town Draft plan
    Papar Kimanis New Town Draft plan
    Papar Kinarut New Town Draft plan
    Papar Papar Town Re-Development Adopted by Local Authority
    Papar Papar Town Re-Development Draft plan
    Tuaran Berungis New Town Draft plan
    Tuaran Kiulu Town Extension Draft plan
    Tuaran Nabalu New Town Approved plan
    Tuaran Tamparuli Town Extension Draft plan
    Tuaran Topokon New Town Draft plan
    Tuaran Tuaran Town Extension Draft plan
    Tuaran Pukak Town Draft plan
    Tuaran Tenghilan New Town Adopted by Local Authority
    Kota Belud Tempasuk New Town Draft plan
    Kota Belud Taginambur New Town Draft Plan
    Kota Belud Kota Belud New Town Draft plan
    Ranau Bundu Tuhan New Town Adopted by Local Authority
    Ranau Ranau Town Extension Draft plan
    Ranau Kundasang New Town Draft plan
    Kudat Pinawantai Town  
    Kudat Limau-Limauan Approved plan
    Kudat Karakit New Town Draft plan
    Kudat Matunggong Town Adopted by Local Authority
    Kudat Matunggong New Town Approved plan
    Kudat Sikuati Town Extension Adopted by Local Authority
    Kudat Kalumpang New Town  
    Kudat Kudat Reclamation Site Draft plan
    Kudat Kudat Town Extension Draft plan
    Kudat Kudat Town Layout Plan Draft Plan
    Kota Marudu Kota Marudu New Town  
    Kota Marudu Tandek New Town Draft plan
    Pitas Kanibongan New Town Adopted by Local Authority
    Pitas Pitas New Town Draft plan
    Pitas Telaga New Town Draft plan
    Beaufort Beaufort Town Extension (North) Approved plan
    Beaufort Beaufort Town Extension (South) Draft plan
    Beaufort Membakut New Town Approved plan
    Kuala Penyu Kuala Penyu Town Extension Draft plan
    Kuala Penyu Kg. Kayul Town Centre Approved scheme
    Kuala Penyu Menumbuk New Town Approved scheme
    Sipitang Malaman New Town Draft plan
    Sipitang Mesapol Town Extension Draft plan
    Sipitang Sindumin/Merapok New Town Draft plan
    Sipitang Sipitang Town Extension Draft plan
    Keningau Apin-Apin New Town Draft plan
    Keningau Bingkor New Town Draft plan
    Keningau Keningau Town Extension Draft plan
    Keningau Kg. Biah New Town Draft plan
    Keningau Sinagang New Town Approved plan
    Keningau Sook New Town  
    Keningau Tulid New Town Approved scheme
    Tambunan Tambunan New Town Draft plan
    Tambunan Patau New Town Adopted by Local Authority
    Tambunan Toboh New Town Draft plan
    Tenom Kemabong New Town Approved plan
    Tenom Tenom Town Extension Draft plan
    Tenom Kuala Tomani New Town Draft plan
    Pensiangan Nabawan Town Extension Adopted by Local Authority
    Pensiangan Pegalungan New Town Draft plan
    Sandakan Gum-Gum New Town Adopted by Local Authority
    Sandakan Garinono New Town Draft plan
    Labuk Sugut Sunga-Sungai New Town Draft plan
    Labuk Sugut Telupid Approved plan
    Labuk Sugut Beluran New Town Draft plan
    Labuk Sugut Paitan New Town Adopted by Local Authority
    Kota Kinabatangan Kota Kinabatangan New Town Approved plan
    Kota Kinabatangan Tambisan New Town Draft plan
    Kota Kinabatangan Tongod New Town Adopted by Local Authority
    Tawau Mile 26 Apas Balung New Town Draft plan
    Tawau Kalumpang New Town Adopted by Local Authority
    Tawau Batu Lapan Jalan Apas Draft plan
    Tawau Sebatik New Town Draft plan
    Tawau Bandar Tawau II Adopted by Local Authority
    Tawau Bandar Tawau III Adopted by Local Authority
    Tawau Merotai New Town Draft plan
    Tawau Kalabakan New Town Draft plan
    Tawau Bandar Tawau IV Draft plan
    Tawau Kinabutan Besar Town (Mile 6) Draft plan
    Tawau Pusat Perniagaan Pantai Sabindo Adopted by Local Authority
    Tawau Serudong Laut Town Draft plan
    Lahad Datu Lahad Datu Town Extension Adopted by Local Authority
    Lahad Datu Tungku Town Draft plan
    Semporna Semporna Extension Draft plan
    Semporna Semporna Town Extension Draft plan
    Semporna Pulau Bum-Bum New Town Draft plan
    Kunak Kunak Town Adopted by Local Authority
    Kunak Kunak Town Extension Draft plan
    Comprehensive

    Development Plans

      Kota Kinabalu Comprehensive Development Plan 1990  
      Sandakan Comprehensive Development Plan 1990  
      Tawau Comprehensive Development Plan  
    District Land Use Planning Schemes Kota Belud Kota Belud District Landuse Planning Scheme Draft plan
    Tuaran Tuaran District Landuse Planning Scheme  
    Ranau Ranau District Landuse Planning Scheme Draft plan
    Kota Kinabalu Kota Kinabalu District Landuse Planning Scheme Draft plan
    Penampang Penampang District Landuse Planning Scheme Draft plan
    Papar Papar District Landuse Planning Scheme Adopted by Local Authority
    Beaufort Beaufort District Landuse Planning Scheme Draft plan
    Keningau Keningau District Landuse Planning Scheme Draft plan
    Kuala Penyu Kuala Penyu District Landuse Planning Scheme Draft plan
    Pensiangan Pensiangan District Landuse Planning Scheme Draft plan
    Tambunan Tambunan District Landuse Planning Scheme Adopted by Local Authority
    Tenom Tenom District Landuse Planning Scheme Draft plan
    Sipitang Sipitang District Landuse Planning Scheme Draft plan
    Sandakan Sandakan District Landuse Planning Scheme Draft plan
    Labuk & Sugut Labuk & Sugut District Landuse Planning Scheme Draft plan
    Kinabatangan Kinabatangan District Landuse Planning Scheme Draft plan
    Tawau Tawau District Landuse Planning Scheme Draft plan
    Kunak Kunak District Landuse Planning Scheme Draft plan
    Semporna Semporna District Landuse Planning Scheme Draft plan
    Lahad Datu Lahad Datu District Landuse Planning Scheme Draft plan
    Kota Marudu Kota Marudu District Landuse Planning Scheme Draft plan
    Kudat Kudat District Landuse Planning Scheme Draft plan
    Pitas Pitas District Landuse Planning Scheme Draft plan

    Figure 37: Location of Schemes and Comprehensive Development Plans in Sabah

     

    Figure 38: Location of Local Plans in Sabah

     

     

    Figure 39: Location of Town Plans in Sabah

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    77The ICZM Plan is intended to fully integrate natural resources management and environmental concerns into the physical plan development.

    78Buku Tahunan Perangkaan, Yearbook of Statistics, Sabah, 1997, Department of Statistics, Sabah Branch.

    79Kota Kinabalu Urban Development Study, Interim Report Volume 1, IBRD/State of Sabah, M+R International and Quad Consortium Sdn Bhd. February 1978.

    80Tawau, Lahad Datu, Kunak, Semporna, Sandakan, Kinabatangan, Labuk Sugut and Pitas.