14.1 Introduction
14.2 Transport in the Data Dictionary
14.3 Roads
14.3.1 Road Networks
14.3.2 Vehicles
14.3.3 Bridges
14.4 Air
14.4.1 Airports/Airstrips
14.5 Rail
14.5.1 Railways
14.6 Sea
14.6.1 Ports
14.6.2 Harbours
14.6.3 Coastal Shipping
14.6.4 Inland Shipping
14.7 Information Issues
14.8 ICZM Issue Arising

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14  TRANSPORT

14.1  Introduction

Sabah has undergone significant changes and improvement in its transport sector over the past years. This is due to the efforts of the government and also the involvement of the private sector to improve accessibility and delivery of services. The development of efficient transportation networks is vital for continued growth of the state’s economy. Transport is not only important for the economy, but it also gives people convenience in their daily lives. Import and export activities, agricultural activities, commercial development, industrial development, tourism are a few examples of the economic activities and development that are dependent on the efficiency of transportation.

14.2  Transport in the Data Dictionary

Figure 63: Transport in the Data Dictionary

Coastal zone management requires information on infrastructure and utilities (including its transport sub-sector), as well as on other sectors to manage the coastal area in an integrated manner. Transport in the ICZM Data Dictionary is divided into four main categories. They are road, air, rail and sea transports. Data needed on road transportation are road network and types of vehicles. For air transportation, information on the airports and airstrips in Sabah are required. Rail transportation data needed are the railways and stations available in Sabah. Data on ports and harbours are required in the sea transportation category. Figure 63 shows the transport indexes in the ICZM Data Dictionary.


14.3  Roads

14.3.1  Road Networks

The management of roads in Sabah is under the jurisdiction of Public Works Department and the Local Authorities. The Public Works Department is responsible in the management of all roads constructed by the department, and the Local Authorities manage roads in housing estates and kampongs. The federal government is involved in the construction of major highways, while the State government is responsible for the construction of feeder roads in Sabah.

Total road network in Sabah increased from 9,753 km in 1992 to a length of approximately 10,582 km in 1996 as shown in Table 91. About 31.9 per cent of the road network in 1996 were sealed roads, compared with 29.9 per cent in 1992. The network of gravelled roads in Sabah increased from 6003 km in 1992 to 6317 km in 1996. The remaining road networks are earth roads.

Some of the major road projects implemented currently are shown in Table 92. The major road networks in Sabah are shown in Figure 5. The network links all major towns and centres in the districts. The Public Works Department has a full programme of road building and road maintenance for the state of Sabah.


Table 91: Roads by Surface Type and Jurisdiction in Sabah, 1992 – 1996

Type and Jurisdiction

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

Roads in kilometres

         

Federal

         

Sealed

945

945

945

945

945

Gravelled

121

121

117

117

117

Total

1066

1066

1062

1062

1062

           

State

         

Public Works Department Roads

         

Sealed

1553

1599

1811

1936

2005

Gravelled

5060

5043

5155

5301

5369

Earth

114

114

103

100

105

Total

6727

6756

7069

7337

7479

           

Local Authorities Roads

         

Sealed

414

414

427

425

427

Gravelled

822

822

825

836

831

Earth

724

724

790

790

783

Total

1960

1960

2042

2051

2041

GRAND TOTAL

9753

9782

10173

10450

10582

Source: Statistical Yearly Book, 1997 Table 12.1, p.204

Table 92: Major Road Projects Implemented in Sabah currently

Project

Jalan Berungis Kota Belud

Jalan Sepangar, Kota Kinabalu

Jalan Beaufort Mesapol

Jalan Sulaimen

Jalan Beaufort Menumbok

Jalan Lintas, Kota Kinabalu

Source: JKR

14.3.2  Vehicles

Vehicle ownership will increase faster than household formation, which will in turn increase faster than population. Hence, population growth is not a suitable measure of vehicle ownership. It mainly depends on incomes and where the car registration take-off point is located.

Table 93 shows the number of registered vehicles in Sabah from 1992 to 1996. Generally, the number of vehicles registered in Sabah increased throughout the years. Table 94 presents the motor vehicles registered by registration area in Sabah during 1996. Kota Kinabalu recorded the highest total number of vehicles at 194, 966 in 1996. Kudat registered the lowest total of 5814 in the same year.

Table 93: Registered Vehicles in Sabah, 1992 -1996

Vehicle 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996
Motorcycles 30717 30810 33698 37075 40533
Motorcars 144734 145396 159407 174922 191724
Taxis, Hires and Drive Cars 3845 3856 4128 4436 4680
Buses 4351 4379 5065 5660 6083
Lorries and Vans 68465 68617 72309 76587 81225
Other Motor Vehicles (a) 18774 19066 27162 36518 46507
Trailers 3053 3132 4882 6641 8351
TOTAL 273939 275256 306651 341839 379103

Source: Statistical Yearly Book, 1997 Table 12.2, p.205
Note: (a) Including Government motorcars and driving school vehicles.

Table 94: Motor Vehicles Registered by Registration Area in Sabah, 1996

Vehicle Sabah Kota Kinabalu Sandakan Tawau Lahad Datu Keningau Kudat Beaufort

Motorcycles

40533 20292 5374 7931 3351 1906 381 1298
Motorcars 191724 105655 37565 28788 7119 6427 2817 3353
Taxis, Hires and Drive Cars 4680 1542 1245 1129 261 262 196 45
Buses 6083 2345 1084 1242 261 908 106 137
Lorries and Van 81225 39977 12925 14394 5515 4917 1608 1889
Other Motor Vehicles (a) 46507 22730 7948 9418 2854 1864 587 1106
Trailers 8351 2425 1379 2559 980 686 119 203
TOTAL 379103 194966 67520 65461 20341 16970 5814 8031

Source: Statistical Yearly Book, 1997 Table 12.3, p.206
Note: (a) Including Government motorcars and driving school vehicles.

14.3.3  Bridges

There are a total of 895 numbers of bridges under the jurisdiction of the Public Works Department.

14.4  Air

14.4.1  Airports/Airstrips

Airports in Sabah and in Malaysia as a whole were privatised in November 1985 and are now under the management of Malaysia Airports Berhad.

Table 95 and Table 96 show the number of passengers departing from and arriving at Sabah airports, respectively. Kota Kinabalu International Airport recorded the highest number of passengers departing from and arriving at its airport. This is expected as the airport has a status of an international airport and is internationally linked to cities such as Manila, Cebu, Davao, Taipei, Tokyo and Seoul. It also operates flights to and from other parts of Malaysia. Generally, most visitors and also the locals use Kota Kinabalu airport initially. The other airports, including Kota Kinabalu, registered a drop in the number of passengers (departing and arriving) in 1993. However, the total increased gradually until 1996.

Data on the size (land area, built-up area and runway) of the airports and airstrips were not available at the time of writing. Information on types of aircraft and air traffic controllers were available but their sources were unknown. Hence, they were not used in the chapter.

Table 95: Passenger Traffic (Departure) at Airports in Sabah, 1992 - 1996

Airport

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

Kota Kinabalu

976713

907185

1,059556

1215969

2129828

Sandakan

193000

145591

173010

191312

213052

Tawau

241451

195898

207632

219914

229774

Other Airports

46757

31527

35693

40517

42557

SABAH

1,457,921

1,280,201

1,475,891

1,667,712

2,615,211

Source: Statistical Yearly Book, 1997 Table 12.7, p.212
Note: ‘Other Airports’ refers to airports in Kudat and Lahad Datu.

Table 96 : Passenger Traffic (Arrival) at Airports in Sabah, 1992 – 1996

Airport

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

Kota Kinabalu

948196

888638

1,036,685

1,194,838

2,103,036

Sandakan

200968

145956

172740

189390

207248

Tawau

240123

192102

198815

221342

234147

Other Airports

46526

31387

35661

40497

41998

SABAH

1,435,813

1,258,083

1,443,901

1,646,067

2,586,429

Source: Statistical Yearly Book, 1997 Table 12.7, p.212
Note: ‘Other Airports’ refers to airports in Kudat and Lahad Datu.

14.5  Rail

14.5.1  Railways

Rail transportation in Sabah is under the management of the Sabah State Railway Department. There is only one railway in Sabah that connects Kota Kinabalu and Tenom. The railway is 138 km in length and 1 m in width. It covers a route of 134 km, and both stations operate daily93.

Deficit

The statistics of the past five years show that the railway industry in Sabah is operating in deficit as shown in Table 97.

Table 97: Revenue and Expenditure of Railway industry in Sabah, 1992 – 1996

No.

Subject

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1

Total Revenue

1,427,600

1,661,200

2,083,700

1,659,100

1,369,500

2

Total Expenditure

8,505,000

8,789,000

8,357,700

9,606,200

13,863,900

3

Net Revenue (-)

7,077,400

7,127,800

6,274,000

7,947,100

12,494,400

Source: Yearbook of Statistics, 1997, Table 12.5, pp.208.

Data on the size of the stations, land and built-up area, number of passengers per day and types of goods transported were not available at the time of writing.

14.6  Sea

14.6.1  Ports

The Sabah Ports Authority (SPA) is under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Communications and Works. It is a state statutory body established in 1968 by the SPA Enactment 1967. This enactment was substituted by the SPA Enactment 1981.

By law, SPA is authorised to exercise jurisdiction over all the ports in Sabah and to co-ordinate all port activities and developments. There are seven ports under the jurisdiction of SPA. They are Kota Kinabalu, Sapangar Bay Oil Terminal, Sandakan, Tawau, Lahad Datu, Kudat and Kunak.

94Kota Kinabalu Port: The port covers an area of 33.8 acres. The port has 12 berths that can accommodate vessels of 16,000 displacement tonnes. The port has three warehouses, and five open storage areas available for general cargo and containers. Modern handling equipment available are 77 units of forklifts (between 2 tonne to 32 tonne capacity), 48 tractors (between 50 to 100 HP capacity), 81 trailers (between 5 tonne to 40 tonne capacity) and 7 straddle carriers. SPA provides stevedoring and security services and also fresh water supply that is available from the mains at the wharves. Although pilotage is not compulsory, it can be arranged.

94Sepangar Bay Oil Terminal: Operations in this bulk liquid terminal started in 1985. It has and inner berth for barges and also an outer berth that can accommodate ships of 30,000 displacement tonnes. Navigational aids are available in the port waters, and pilotage which is optional, can be arranged. The port has nine common-user and six single-user pipelines for petroleum products such as gasoline, diesel, and bitumen. The fire fighting facilities of the Sapangar Bay Oil Terminal comprises of two tower fire monitors at the jetty head.

94Sandakan Port: The port covers an area of 38.2 acres. This port has 4 berths (total length of 564 metres) and 1 oil jetty that are able to accommodate vessels of 20,000 displacement tonnes. There are two godowns at the port with a total area of 13,059m2, one container yard and two open storage areas. Handling equipment available at the port include 2 reachstackers, 37 forklifts (between 2 to 25 tonnes), 8 tractors (between 50 HP to 100 HP), 19 trailers (between 5 to 40 tonnes capacity) and 1 stacker. Stevedoring and security services are also available at the port. Fresh water supply is available from the mains at the wharves. Pilotage is not compulsory but can be arranged.

94Tawau Port: The port covers an area of 23.8 acres. It has 6 berths that can contain vessels of 16,000 displacement tonnes. The oil jetty at the port can accommodate tankers of 30,000 displacement tonnes. The port has three godowns, two open storage areas and one container yard. Handling equipment available include four 45 tonne reachstackers, 47 forklifts (between 2 to 25 tonnes), 22 tractors (between 50 to 100 HP) and 32 trailers (between 5 to 40 tonnes capacity). Stevedoring, security and fresh water supply are available at the port. Pilotage, which is optional, can be arranged.

94Kudat Port: At present, the port is serving barter trade cargos through its jetty. Due to the upgrading of road network connecting Kudat and Kota Kinabalu, the port is becoming less important. However, the port will continue to run as a timber exporting point restricted to mid-stream activities.

94Lahad Datu Port: The port serves a productive agricultural community specialising in cocoa, palm oil and rubber. Timber loading activities are handled at mid-stream. Basic facilities are available for oil tankers. Private operators in an area near the port maintain bulk oil storage facilities.

94Kunak Port: This port serves a small hinterland. It has a jetty for loading, and an oil jetty for tankers to load the palm oil.

Table 98 shows the capacity and through tonnage at the ports in Sabah. Through tonnage has increased over the past 10 years until 1996. Although increases have been steady in Kota Kinabalu, the change in forestry/agricultural priorities may have reduced the growth of Sandakan and led to stagnation of throughputs in Tawau. Declines in Kunak over the years have been more than replaced by the increases in nearby Lahad Datu.

 

Table 98: Capacity and Through Tonnage at Ports in Sabah

Item Kota Kinabalu Sapangar Bay Sandakan Tawau Lahad Datu Kudat Kunak Total
1996 Tonnage
Dry Bulk 123 N/A 214 109 168 N/A N/A 614
Liquid Tanker 20 911 1,229 597 803 N/A 41 3601
Container 992 N/A 228 297 N/A N/A N/A 1517
Break Bulk 1,867 1,150 1,741 1,347 459 76 5 6645
Local Craft 564 581 1,909 1,386 32 244 N/A 4716
Others 278 N/A 39 47 N/A N/A N/A 364
1996 Total (000 tons) 3,844 2,643 5,360 3,783 1,461 320 47 17,458
1991 Total (000 tons) 2,908 1,802 4,133 3,942 605 200 91 13,681
1986 Total (000 tons)101 2,163 934 4,151 3,400 854 271 193 11,966
Port Capacity (DWT) 94,000 31,000 62,000 70,000 50,000 6,000 28,000 341,000
Warehousing (m2) 22,833 N/A 13,294 8,639 1,578 720 N/A 47,064
1996 Vessels 2,907 1,633 4,233 4,373 575 686 22 14,429

Source: Sabah Ports Authority. Totals are rounded and may not add.

Port growth and warehouse provision has naturally been concentrated in the major population centres and has supported the major economic functions of the area. If future development alternatives consider that dispersal of growth may be a viable approach for the State, then port planning should also take this matter account. Potential undeveloped areas with deep-water access may be considered in conjunction with future spatial planning approaches. However, any trend towards using larger vessels is likely to further strengthen the larger ports, and could result in even fewer throughputs for smaller ports.

14.6.2  Harbours

The State Ports and Harbours Department was established to look after port and harbour matters. Updated data on the exact roles of the department were not available at the time of writing.

Available information states that the Ports and Harbours Department has enforcement vessels and needs to travel more than 1 nautical miles for enforcement purposes. The numbers of vessels below 15 Net tons are increasing rapidly and with this 1 mile coastal trading limit, it is insufficient and requires to be increased to 3 nautical miles. Coastal trade ship limit also needs to be increased to 3 nautical miles because the numbers of tourists to the islands surrounding Sabah Waters have increased.

Sand mining at sea is under Ports and Harbours Department and the developer needs to get permission and approval to extract coral and sea sand from the sea, similarly also for the construction of new jetties.

Developments within an area of 3 Nautical miles from the shore to sea such as reclamation and dredging are under the Ports and Harbours Department. However, this area may have to be extended to the territorial limit to coincide with the jurisdiction covered by the Town and Regional Planning Ordinance/Act.

Figure 64 shows the location of navigation channels in Sabah.

14.6.3  Coastal Shipping

Data were not available at the time of writing this report.

14.6.4  Inland Shipping

Data were not available at the time of writing this report.

Figure 64: Location of Navigation Channels in Sabah

14.7  Information Issues

The following data are still required for the chapter:

Air: Data on the size (land area, built-up area and runway) of the airports and airstrips are needed. Information on types of aircraft and air traffic controllers were available but their sources were unknown. Hence, they were not used in the chapter;

Rail: Data on the size of the stations, land and built-up area, number of passengers per day and types of goods transported are needed;

Sea: Information on types of vessels at ports and harbours; data on the condition, status, width, depth, etc of the navigation channels at the ports in Sabah; and data on dredging activities (e.g. reclamation activities) along the coast of Sabah are required.

14.8  ICZM Issue Arising

Road Networks: There is a need to improve the road network to connect major towns to smaller but accessible areas. Many roads are also exposed to the problem of overloading caused by overloaded vehicles. The damages caused by this action increase the cost of road maintenance.

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93Source: Yearbook of Statistics, 1997, Table 12.5, p. 208

94Sabah Ports Authority Homepage – http://www.infosabah.com.my/spa/

101Excludes Semporna in 1986